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  • "European Patent Protection for Medical uses of Known Products and Drug Repurposing", with M. Aboy, M. Jordan, C. Crespo, and J. Liddicoat, (2022) 40(4) Nature Biotechnology pp.465-471.
  • "Patent Eligibility and Precision Medicine: Emerging Technologies, Legal Flux and Empirical Methods", with A. Sagar, J. Liddicoat and M. Aboy, in N Hawkins (ed) Patenting Biotechnical Innovation (Edward Elgar 2022).


  • "Mapping the European Patent Landscape for Medical Uses of Known Products", with M. Aboy, J. Liddicoat, C. Crespo and M. Jordan, (2021) 39(11) Nature Biotechnology pp.1336-1343.
  • "Has the EU Incentive for Drug Repositioning Been Effective? An Empirical Analysis of the “+1” Regulatory Exclusivity", with J. Liddicoat, M. Aboy and J. Wested, (2021) 52(7) International Review of Intellectual Property and Competition Law pp.825-851.
  • "Reconsidering Repositioning Incentives: An Empirical Legal Analysis of Market Protection for New Therapeutic Indications", with J. Liddicoat and Z. Fritz, (2021) 3 European Pharmaceutical Law Review pp.110-124.
  • "Patient Data Ownership: Who Owns Your Health?", with D. Simon and  A. Lucassen, (2021) 8(1) Journal of Law and the Biosciences pp.1-50.
  • "An Empirical Study of Large, Human Bioresources: Intellectual Property Policies and Financial Conditions for Access", with M. Jordan and J. Liddicoat (2021) 8(1) Journal of Law and the Biosciences pp.1-32.
  • "Standard Contractual Clauses for Cross-Border Transfers of Health Data after Schrems II", with L. Bradford and M. Aboy, (2021) 8(1) Journal of Law and the Biosciences pp.1-36.


  • "International Transfers of Health Data between the EU and US: A Better Approach for the US to Ensure an ‘Adequate’ Level of Protection", with L. Bradford and M. Aboy, (2020) 7(1) Journal of Law and the Biosciences pp.1-31.
  • "COVID-19 Contact Tracing Apps: A Stress Test for Privacy, the GDPR, and Data Protection Regimes", with L. Bradford and M. Aboy, (2020) 7(1) Journal of Law and the Biosciences pp.1-21.
  • "One Year after Vanda, are Diagnostics Patents Transforming into Methods of Treatment to Overcome Mayo-Based Rejections?", with M. Aboy, C. Crespo, N. Davey, J. Liddicoat and T. Minssen, (2020) 38(3) Nature Biotechnology pp.279.


  • "How Does Emerging Patent Case Law in the US and Europe Affect Precision Medicine?", with M. Aboy, C. Crespo, G. Cohen, J. Liddicoat, S. Gerke, and T. Minssen, (2019) 57(10) Nature Biotechnology pp.1118-1125.
  • "Mayo’s Impact on Patent Applications Related to Biotechnology, Diagnostics, and Personalized Medicine", with M. Aboy, C. Crespo, T. Minssen, and J. Liddicoat, (2019) 37(5) Nature Biotechnology pp.513-518.
  • "Continental Drift? Do European Clinical Genetic Testing Laboratories have a Patent Problem?", with J. Liddicoat, A. McCarthy, S. Hogarth, M. Aboy, D. Nicol, S. Patton, and M. Hopkins, (2019) 27 European Journal of Human Genetics pp.997-1007.
  • "Morality, Religion and Patents" in Patents on Life: Religious, Moral and Social Justice Aspects of Biotechnology and Intellectual Property, (Cambridge University Press 2019) pp.25-37.


  • "Was the Myriad Decision a ‘Surgical Strike’ on Isolated DNA Patents, or does it have Wider Impacts?", with M. Aboy, C. Crespo, J. Liddicoat, and M. Jordan, (2018) 56(12) Nature Biotechnology pp.1146-1149.


  • "After Myriad, what makes a Gene Patent Claim ‘Markedly Different’ from Nature?", with M. Aboy, J. Liddicoat, M. Jordan, and C. Crespo, (2017) 35(9) Nature Biotechnology pp.820-825.
  • "Open Innovation with Large Bioresources: Goals, Challenges and Proposals", with J. Liddicoat, (2017) University of Cambridge Faculty of Law Research Paper No. 6/2017 Available at SSRN: <> accessed 11 December 2018.


  • "Should we Change EU Law to Disallow DNA Patents?", with J. Liddicoat , Philomathia Forum, Third Annual Symposium, ‘Body Politics: the Dilemmas of Regulating New Technologies’ (October 21, 2016). Available at SSRN: <> accessed 11 December 2018.
  • "Myriad’s Impact on Gene Patents", with M. Aboy, J. Liddicoat, and C. Crespo, (2016) 34(11) Nature Biotechnology pp.1119-1123.
  • "Fair and Equitable Treatment and Judicial Patent Decisions", with M. Waibel, (2016) 19(1) Journal of International Economic Law pp.145-174.
  • "The Origins and Structure of the TRIPS Agreement", with W. Cornish, in H. Ullrich, R.M. Hilty, M. Lamping and J. Drexl (eds), TRIPS plus 20: From Trade Rules to Market Principle (Springer 2016) pp.3-51.



  • "Immorality and Patents: The Exclusion of Inventions Contrary to Ordre Public and Morality", in A. Lever (ed) New Frontiers in the Philosophy of Intellectual Property (Cambridge University Press 2012) pp.140-71.


  • "The Health Impact Fund: A Critique", in T. Pogge, M. Rimmer and K. Rubenstein, Incentives for Global Health (Cambridge University Press 2010).


  • "The Phantom Menace of Gene Patents", with S. Gaisser, M. Hopkins, E. Zika and D. Ibarreta, (2009) 458 (7237) Nature pp.407-9.


  • "Patents as Incentives for Translational and Evaluative Research: the Case of Genetic Tests and their Improved Clinical Performance", with S. Hogarth, D. Melzer and R. Zimmern, (2008) 3 Intellectual Property Quarterly pp.286-327.
  • "Patent Entitlement Claims: Markem Overruled", (2008) 67 (2) Cambridge Law Journal pp.256-60.


  • "Legal and Governance Framework for ‘Personal Data for Public Good: Using Health Information in Medical Research'". (Academy of Medical Sciences, London 2006) pp 21-43 <>.
  • "Consent, Confidentiality and the Data Protection Act", with A. Iversen, N. Fear, M. Hotopf and S. Wessely, (2006) 332 BMJ pp.165.


  • "The Mythical Connection Between Data Protection Law and Confidentiality: Processing Data “Lawfully”", (2005) 6(6) Bio-science Law Review pp.215.


  • Graeme Laurie, "Genetic Privacy: A Challenge to Medico-Legal Norms", Book Review, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002 (2004) Edinburgh Law Review.
  • Rosemary Pattenden, "The Law of Professional–Client Confidentiality: Regulating the Disclosure of Confidential Personal Information", Book Review, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003’ (2004) Bio-science Law Review.